A la carte Web Development

Joe Gregorio

Stop using JS Frameworks is something I’ve been advocating for years now, and a legitimate question I get is what do you replace it with?

The answer is “a la carte” web development.

Instead of picking a monolithic solution like a web framework, you just pick the pieces you need. I don’t mean any old random pieces, below I am going to outline specific criteria that need to be met for some components to participate in a la carte web development.

To get a better feel for this let’s start by looking at what a web framework “normally” provides. The “normally” is in quotes because not all frameworks provide all of these features, but most frameworks provide a majority of them:

  • Framework
    • Model
    • Tooling and structure
    • Elements
    • Templating
    • State Management

All good things, but why do they have to be bundled together like a TV dinner?

A la carte

“A la carte” web development does away with the framework, says just use the browser for the model, and the rest of the pieces you pick and choose the ones that work for you. In a la carte development each bullet point is a separate piece of software:

A la carte

Tooling and structure
Defines a directory structure for how a project is put together and provides tooling such as JS transpiling, CSS prefixing, etc. for projects that conform that directory structure. Expects ES6 modules with the extension that webpack, rollup, and similar tools presume, i.e. allow importing other types of files, see webpack loaders.
A library of v1 custom elements in ES6 modules. Note that these elements must be provided in ES6 modules with the extension that webpack, rollup, and similar tools presume, i.e. allow importing other types of files, see webpack loaders. The elements much also be “neat”, i.e. just HTML, CSS, and JS. No SCSS or templating libraries.
Any templating library you like, as long as it works with v1 custom elements.
State Management
Any state management library you like, if you even need one.

The assumptions needed for all of this to work together are fairly minimal:

  1. ES6 modules and the extension that webpack, rollup, and similar tools presume, i.e. allow importing other types of files, see webpack loaders.
  2. The base elements are “Neat”, i.e. they are JS, CSS, and HTML only. No additional libraries are used, such as a templating library. Note that sets of ‘neat’ elements also conform to #1, i.e. they are provided as webpack/rollup compatible ES6 modules.

Obviously there are other guidelines that could be added as advisory, for example Google Developers Guide - Custom Elements Best Practices, should be followed when creating custom elements sets, except for the admonition to use Shadow DOM, which I would avoid for now, unless you really need it.

Such code will natively run in browsers that support custom elements v1. To get it to run in a wider range of browsers you will need to add polyfills and, depending on the target browser version, compile the JS back to an older version of ES, and run a prefixer on the CSS. The wider the target set of browsers and the older the versions you are targeting the more processing you will need to do, but the original code doesn’t need to change, and all those extra processing steps are only incurred by projects that need it.


To move this proposal beyond just theoretical I’ve been developing and porting applications over to this model for the past few months.

We just published pulito, a stake in the ground for what a “tooling and structure” component looks like. You will note that it isn’t very complex, nothing more than an opinionated webpack config file.

Similarly we’ve published our set of “neat” custom elements skia-elements. A small set of elements that is still very much a work in progress. Documentation and live demos for skia-elements can be found on jsdoc.skia.org.

Our current stack looks like:

Tooling and structure

We have used Redux in an experimental app that never shipped and haven’t needed any state management libraries in the other applications we’ve ported over, so our ‘state management’ library is still an open question.


What is like to use this stack? Let’s start from an empty directory and start building a web app:

$ yarn init
$ yarn add pulito

We are starting from scratch so use the project skeleton that pulito provides:

$ unzip node_modules/pulito/skeleton.zip
$ yarn

We can now run the dev server and see our running skeleton application:

$ make serve

Now let’s add in skia-elements and add a set of tabs to the UI.

$ yarn add skia-elements

Now add imports to pages/index.js to bring in the elements we need:

import 'skia-elements/tabs-sk';
import 'skia-elements/tabs-panel-sk';
import '../modules/example-element';

And then use those elements on pages/index.html:

    <button class="selected">Some Tab</button>
    <button>Another Tab</button>
      <p>This is Some Tab contents.</p>
      This is the contents for Another Tab.
  <example-element active></example-element>

Now restart the dev server and see the updated page:

$ make serve

Why is this better?

Web frameworks usually make all these choices for you, you don’t get to choose, even if you don’t need the functionality. For example, state managament might not be needed, why are you ‘paying’ for it, where ‘paying’ means learning about that aspect of the web framework, and possibly even having to serve the code that implements state managment even if you never use it. With a la carte development you only include what you use.

An extra benefit comes when it is time to upgrade. How much time have you lost with massive upgrades from v1 to v2 of a web framework? With ‘a la carte’ developement the upgrades don’t have to be monolithic. I.e. if you’ve chosen a templating library and want to upgrade to the next version you only need to update your templates, and not have to touch every aspect of your application.

Finally, ‘a la carte’ web development provides no “model” but the browser. Of all the things that frameworks provide, “model” is the most problematic. Instead of just using the browser as it is, many frameworks have their own model of the browser, how DOM works, how events work, etc. I have gone into depth on the issues previously, but they can be summarized as lost effort (learning something that doesn’t translate) and a barrier to reuse. What should replace it? Just use the browser, it already has a model for how to combine elements together, and now with custom elements v1 gives you the ability to create your own elements, you have all you need.

Let a thousand flowers bloom

One of the most important aspects of ‘a la carte’ web developement is that it decouples all the components, allowing them to evolve and adapt to user needs on a much faster cycle than the normal web framework release cycle allows. Just because we’ve published pulito and skia-elements doesn’t mean we believe they are the best solutions. I’d love to have a slew of options to choose from for tooling, base element sets, templating, and state management. I’d like to see Rollup based tools that take the place of pulito, and a whole swarm of “neat” custom elements sets with varying levels of customizability and breadth.

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